>An interesting derm case in the ED: Mycosis Fungoides

Mycosis Fungoides: A Medical Student Clinical Pearl

 

Nicholas Relja, B.Sc.(Hon), M.Sc.
Dalhousie Medicine New Brunswick
M.D. Candidate, Class of 2022

All case histories are illustrative and not based on any individual

Reviewed by Dr. Devon Webster

Copyedited by Dr. Mandy Peach

Case

A 55-year-old male presented to the ED after concerned family brought him in due to ongoing generalized weakness lasting approximately one month. On inspection he had erythematous, scaly, ulcerative lesions covering his entire body with only facial sparing. He mentioned burning-like pain originating from his ulcerative lesions. He had been previously diagnosed with T-cell lymphoma 30 years ago and had gone through multiple rounds of chemo and radiation therapy since that time.

Picture from: Denis D, Beneton N, Laribi K, Maillard H (2019). Management of mycosis fungoides-type cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (MF-CTCL): focus on chlormethine gel. Cancer Management and Research. Vol 11: 2241-2251

Differential for itchy, erythematous rash:

Condition
Atopic dermatitis
Contact dermatitis
Drug eruptions
Erythrodermic psoriasis
Psoriasis
Sezary syndrome
Various lymphomas

 

When reviewing the patient’s past medical history you see they were previously diagnosed with Mycosis Fungoides – a rare cutaneous form of T-cell lymphoma.

Epidemiology

Mycosis fungoides has an incidence of approximately 6 cases per million per year in the United States. It is more common in adults over 50 years of age, with a male to female ratio of 2:1. The disease is also more common amongst the Black population than in Caucasians or Asians.8,9

Etiology

The exact cause of mycosis fungoides is not known; however, there a variety of mechanisms that have been postulated:2

• Genetic and epigenetic abnormalities.3,4
• Environmental and occupational exposure to noxious substances and chemicals.5
• Human T-lymphotropic virus Type 1 – a suspected infection-type etiology.6
• Cytokines such as IL-2 and IL-4 due to their increased presence in patients with mycosis fungoides and Sezary syndrome.7

 

There are three stages of mycosis fungoides and therefore clinical presentation will vary depending on the stage of disease:

Patch stage: Erythematous, or brownish scaly patch, which may show some atrophy. It is possible to have one or multiple lesions develop in areas such as the gluteal region or on the proximal thighs. The likeness of this stage has been compared to “small-plaque” or “large plaque” parapsoriasis; however, the plaques are actually not plaques but patches instead.10

Plaque stage: This is the second stage – lesions will be larger, more numerous and will show infiltration. The lesions appear annular, are raised and have well-defined edges as well as asymmetry in terms of their distribution. Face and scalp involvement can also be seen starting at this stage.11

Tumor stage: The final stage – erythematous-purplish papules or nodules of larger diameter.12

There are other clinical variants of mycosis fungoides, but they are not as common, and some are quite rare.

Sezary syndrome:
In advanced form of the mycosis fungoides, Sezary syndrome may be present. This syndrome involves erythroderma with pruritus, lymphadenopathy and atypical circulating lymphocytes (referred to as Sezary or Lutzner cells).13

Evaluation in the ED

A detailed history and physical exam including checking for lymphadenopathy (most commonly cervical nodes) and organomegaly14,15 in addition to documenting the rash characteristics.

Labs: CBC, liver function tests, LDH

Radiological tests: depends on extent of lymphadenopathy and organomegaly. Can do a CXR in the ED for lung involvement, but otherwise advanced imaging can be decided upon by specialist consultant and may include CT, US, PET or MRI.

Biopsy: lymph nodes and rash – by consultants

Treatment and Management – refer to your friendly neighborhood dermatologist.

Early stage:

Treatment options include topical therapies such as corticosteroids and other agents, UV therapy, local radiation and systemic immunosuppressants 15,16,17.

Advanced Stage:

Treatment for the advanced stages of mycosis fungoides are directed at disease control and symptom relief. Localized radiation, targeted immunotherapy or chemotherapy. 15, 18

Prognosis

The prognosis of mycosis fungoides is variable but in general as the stage gets more advanced and with patients over the age of 60, the prognosis becomes poorer. Other poor prognostic factors include increased LDH, tumor distribution and organ involvement.2

Case Conclusion

The patient seen in hospital by the dermatologist on call and was deemed to be in the plaque stage. He was admitted due to the advancing course and and inability to manage his symptoms from home. Further care will involve palliation and a focus on quality of life.

 

References:

  1. Olisova, O. Y. et al. [Current possibilities of the differential diagnosis of plaque parapsoriasis and the early stages of mycosis fungoides]. Arkh. Patol. 81, 9–17 (2019).
  2. Lim, H. L. J. et al. Epidemiology and prognostic factors for mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome in a multi-ethnic Asian cohort: a 12-year review. J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. JEADV 33, 1513–1521 (2019).
  3. Bergallo, M. et al. DNA from Human Polyomaviruses, MWPyV, HPyV6, HPyV7, HPyV9 and HPyV12 in Cutaneous T-cell Lymphomas. Anticancer Res. 38, 4111–4114 (2018).
  4. Väisänen, E. et al. Cutavirus DNA in Malignant and Nonmalignant Skin of Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma and Organ Transplant Patients but Not of Healthy Adults. Clin. Infect. Dis. Off. Publ. Infect. Dis. Soc. Am. 68, 1904–1910 (2019).
  5. Slodownik, D., Moshe, S., Sprecher, E. & Goldberg, I. Occupational mycosis fungoides – a case series. Int. J. Dermatol. 56, 733–737 (2017).
  6. Blaizot, R., Ouattara, E., Fauconneau, A., Beylot-Barry, M. & Pham-Ledard, A. Infectious events and associated risk factors in mycosis fungoides/Sézary syndrome: a retrospective cohort study. Br. J. Dermatol. 179, 1322–1328 (2018).
  7. Fujii, K. New Therapies and Immunological Findings in Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma. Front. Oncol. 8, 198 (2018).
  8. Amorim, G. M., Niemeyer-Corbellini, J. P., Quintella, D. C., Cuzzi, T. & Ramos-E-Silva, M. Clinical and epidemiological profile of patients with early stage mycosis fungoides. An. Bras. Dermatol. 93, 546–552 (2018).
  9. Amorim, G. M., Niemeyer-Corbellini, J. P., Quintella, D. C., Cuzzi, T. & Ramos-E-Silva, M. Hypopigmented mycosis fungoides: a 20-case retrospective series. Int. J. Dermatol. 57, 306–312 (2018).
  10. Pimpinelli, N. et al. Defining early mycosis fungoides. J. Am. Acad. Dermatol. 53, 1053–1063 (2005).
  11. Burg, G., Dummer, R., Nestle, F. O., Doebbeling, U. & Haeffner, A. Cutaneous lymphomas consist of a spectrum of nosologically different entities including mycosis fungoides and small plaque parapsoriasis. Arch. Dermatol. 132, 567–572 (1996).
  12. Keehn, C. A., Belongie, I. P., Shistik, G., Fenske, N. A. & Glass, L. F. The diagnosis, staging, and treatment options for mycosis fungoides. Cancer Control J. Moffitt Cancer Cent. 14, 102–111 (2007).
  13. Lopez, A. T., Bates, S. & Geskin, L. Current Status of HDAC Inhibitors in Cutaneous T-cell Lymphoma. Am. J. Clin. Dermatol. 19, 805–819 (2018).
  14. Prince, H. M. & Querfeld, C. Integrating novel systemic therapies for the treatment of mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome. Best Pract. Res. Clin. Haematol. 31, 322–335 (2018).
  15. Wain, T., Venning, V. L., Consuegra, G., Fernandez-Peñas, P. & Wells, J. Management of cutaneous T-cell lymphomas: Established and emergent therapies. Australas. J. Dermatol. 60, 200–208 (2019).
  16. Dairi, M., Dadban, A., Arnault, J.-P., Lok, C. & Chaby, G. Localized mycosis fungoides treated with laser-assisted photodynamic therapy: a case series. Clin. Exp. Dermatol. 44, 930–932 (2019).
  17. Photiou, L., van der Weyden, C., McCormack, C. & Miles Prince, H. Systemic Treatment Options for Advanced-Stage Mycosis Fungoides and Sézary Syndrome. Curr. Oncol. Rep. 20, 32 (2018).
  18. Alpdogan, O., Kartan, S., Johnson, W., Sokol, K. & Porcu, P. Systemic therapy of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). Chin. Clin. Oncol. 8, 10 (2019).

 

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