>Ultrasound guided hematoma block for distal radius fractures

Ultrasound guided hematoma block for distal radius fractures

Resident Clinical Pearl (RCP) September 2019

Robert Dunfield – PGY1 FMEM Dalhousie University, Saint John NB

Reviewed by Dr. Kavish Chandra

 

Mr. JG, a 34 year old male snowboarder, presents to your busy emergency department after a snowboarding accident. He suffered a fall onto his left outstretched hand after hitting a jump that was approximately one foot high. Radiograph shows a closed distal radius fracture with significant  dorsal angulation.

Figure courtesy of Dr Pir Abdul Ahad Aziz, Radiopaedia.org, rID: 47908

Tonight is a busy shift and you’re working in a resource-limited department with very few staff. In speaking with the patient, he’s nervous about the prospect of procedural sedation and would prefer to not be “put to sleep to fix [his] wrist”. Luckily, your department recently purchased an ultrasound machine and the patient consents to a hematoma block prior to reduction.


What is a hematoma?

Following the initial impact that causes a fracture, the initial stage of bone healing involves a hematoma formation. In simple terms, a hematoma is a large blood clot that collects at the fracture site. Hematomas are rich in vascular supply and are the site of eventual soft callus formation; they’re the result of bony blood supply being disrupted at the site of the defect

 

Stages in Fracture Repair. The healing of a bone fracture follows a series of progressive steps: (a) A fracture hematoma forms. (b) Internal and external calli form. (c) Cartilage of the calli is replaced by trabecular bone. (d) Remodeling occurs.1

 

Hematoma blocks as an alternative to procedural sedation?

Compared to procedural sedation, hematoma blocks can be done safely when procedural sedation is not an option or is contraindicated. They also offer an alternative option for analgesia when an emergency department is busy and resources are lacking to safely perform procedural sedation.2

  • Procedural sedation requires a period of recovery after the procedure, hematoma blocks do not necessitate traditional post procedural recovery.3
  • Evidence that suggests post-procedure analgesia is similar in hematoma block patients compared to patients who undergo procedural sedation.4
  • Hematoma blocks are a form of local anaesthesia that can be used when reducing simple, closed distal long bone fractures, like the distal radius fracture in this case. They can also be performed to provide analgesia for nondisplaced fractures.2

 

Prior to the advent of bedside ultrasound, hematoma blocks were dependent on external anatomy landmarking, using “step-off” site of the bony deformity as the landmark for injection. This can be difficult, however, in fractures where swelling, habitus, or deformity can distort the anatomy of the hematoma.2 This is where ultrasound plays a role in identifying the deformity and therefore improves the precision of hematoma injection.

Contraindications to hematoma block include allergy to the anaesthetic being used, if the fracture is open, if there is cellulitis overlying the site of the fracture, and/or if there is a neurovascular deficit on exam of the affected limb.5

 

Performing  a hematoma block under US guidance

Mr. JG requires reduction of his distal radius fracture. Due to his uneasiness with procedural sedation, combined with the busy and resource-strained nature of your emergency department, a hematoma block under ultrasound guidance is performed.

 

  • Gain informed consent: The initial step in performing a hematoma block is similar to all medical procedures in that the patient undergoing the procedure should be informed of the risks associated with hematoma blocks and fracture reduction. These include, although rare, compartment syndrome, local anesthetic toxicity, acute carpal tunnel syndrome, and temporary paralysis of the upper limb6. Remember that maximum dose of lidocaine without epinephrine is 5mg/kg.
  • Reassess the neurovascular integrity of the limb: Prior to injecting the hematoma block, ensure you have confirmed neurovascular integrity of that limb.
  • Grab the supplies you’ll need: The following list is limited to the supplies needed for your hematoma block and does not include the supplies needed for fracture reduction and casting.
    • Ultrasound machine with a linear transducer probe
    • Tegaderm transparent film
    • Sterile lubricating jelly
    • Sterile skin marker
    • Sterile gloves
    • Chlorhexidine swabs x 3
    • 16G Needle (for drawing up analgesia)
    • 20G or 22G Needle (for injecting analgesia)
    • 10mL syringe
    • 1% lidocaine (approximately 10mL)
  • Landmark the hematoma using point of care ultrasound: Trace the bone’s cortex on the dorsal aspect of the forearm from the proximal aspect of the fracture towards the fracture site until you reach an interruption in the cortex of the radius (see below). Mark that site with your marker for injection.

Left: Sagittal image of left radius outlining an interruption in the radial cortex at the site of the hematoma. Right: Same image, edited to identify anatomy.8 Edited by Robert Dunfield PGY1-Dalhousie

  • Clean the site and prepare other materials: Clean the site with chlorhexidine swabs x 3. Allow it to dry while you prepare the remainder of your equipment. Draw up your 10mL of 1% lidocaine with the 16G needle and then change the needle to your 20 or 22G needle. A longer needle may be needed to reach the site of the hematoma.
  • Prepare your transducer: Clean your linear transducer and then put on your sterile gloves. With the help of an assistant apply the sterile tegaderm film to the liner transducer and place sterile lubricating jelly on the probe.
  • Insert needle under US guidance: Using the probe to visualize the site of the hematoma, simultaneously begin to insert the needle in a caudal fashion toward the hematoma, visualizing the needle in the long axis. Use the ultrasound image to follow the needle’s insertion.

Injection of hematoma block under ultrasound guidance.6 Modified by Robert Dunfield PGY1-Dalhousie

  • Inject the lidocaine: Inject 10mL of 1% lidocaine into the hematoma.
  • Give time for analgesia to take effect: Allow 5 to 10 minutes of time to allow the analgesia to take full effect, then reassess neurovascular integrity.
  • Proceed with the reduction.
  • Added note: It’s possible for distal radius fractures to have an associated ulnar styloid fracture, which will require repeating the same steps as described above, only at the side of the ulnar fracture.

 

Summary:

    • Hematoma blocks under ultrasound guidance can be done on certain distal long bone fractures that lack any contraindications
    • Use the ultrasound probe to trace the bone’s cortex and identify the site of the hematoma, then insert the needle into the hematoma under the guidance of your linear transducer.
    • Confirm needle placement into the hematoma by aspiration and inject 10mL of 1% lidocaine into the hematoma.
    • Allow 5 to 10 minutes of analgesia onset before reducing the fracture.
    • Remember to reassess the limb’s neurovascular integrity before and after the procedure.

Copyedited by Kavish Chandra

 

Resources:

  1. Rice University. Anatomy and Physiology. Chapter 6.5: Bone Repair. https://opentextbc.ca/anatomyandphysiology/chapter/6-5-fractures-bone-repair. Accessed: September 03, 2019. Last updated: unknown.
  2. Gottlieb M and Cosby K. Ultrasound-guided hematoma block for distal radial and ulnar fractures. Journal of Emergency Medicine. 2015;48(3):310-312.
  3. Alerhand S and Koyfman A. Ultrasound-Guided Hematoma Block. emDocs.net. http://www.emdocs.net/ultrasound-guided-hematoma-block/. Accessed: September 07, 2019. Last updated: December 21, 2014.
  4. Fathi M, Moezzi M, Abbasi S, Farsi D, Zare MA, Hafezimoghadam P. Ultrasound-guided hematoma block in distal radial fracture reduction: a randomised clinical trial. Emerg Med J. 2015;32:474-477.
  5. Reichman EF. Emergency Medicine Procedures. Second Edition. 2013:Chapter 125 Hematoma Blocks.
  6. Emiley P, Schreier S, Pryor P. Hematoma Blocks for Reduction of Distal Radius Fractures. Emergency Physicians Monthly. https://epmonthly.com/article/hematoma-blocks-for-reduction-of-distal-radius-fractures/. Accessed: September 14, 2019. Last updated: February 2017.
  7. Beaty JH and Kasser JR. Rockwood and Wilkins’ Fractures in Children. Chapter 3: Pain Relief and Related Concerns in Children’s Fractures, pp61-63.
  8. EM Cases and POCUS Toronto. POCUS Cases 4: Distal Radius Fracture. https://emergencymedicinecases.com/video/pocus-cases-4-distal-radius-fracture/. Accessed: September 14, 2019. Last updated: July 2018.
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