External CPD Links

 

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Nursemaid’s Elbow

Nursemaid’s Elbow

Medical Student Pearl

 

Erika Maxwell

@ErikaMaxwell

Memorial University Class of 2023

Reviewed by: Dr. David Lewis


Case

A 10-month-old female is brought into the Emergency Department by her mother with a left arm injury. The infant had a fall from standing and the mother reached out to grab her and caught her left forearm. After the incident, the patient’s mother noticed that the infant was no longer using the arm. The child has no medical history and is not taking any medications. She is vitally stable.

On exam, the child’s left arm is limp and extended at her side. She is using her right arm and hand exclusively, including to grasp for items on the left side of her body (pseudoparalysis). There is no deformity, erythema, edema, or ecchymosis. The arm and hand are neurovascularly intact (strong brachial pulse, pink and warm).


Differential Diagnosis

  • Nursemaid’s elbow/pulled elbow/radial head subluxation
  • Elbow fracture
  • Wrist fracture or soft tissue injury
  • Shoulder dislocation

Background

A pulled elbow occurs most frequently in young children with the median age for presentation being 2 years [1]. The reason for this is debated in the literature with some sources saying that the annular ligament is weaker in children [2] and others saying that the radial head is smaller [1], both resulting in a less stable joint.

The most common mechanism of injury is axial traction (i.e. pulling on the arm or hand), but falls or rough play may also be responsible [2].


Anatomical Context

The annular ligament holds the radial head in place next to the ulna. When axial traction is applied by pulling the forearm or hand, the radial head may move underneath the annular ligament and trap it in the radiohumeral joint, against the capitellum [1].

Figure 1: The arm on the left displays a normal elbow, whereas on the right the radius is subluxated and trapping the annular ligament against the capitellum [3].


Signs and Symptoms [3]

  • Pain at elbow
  • Pseudoparalysis of injured arm
  • Extension or light flexion of injured arm, often pronated

Diagnosis and Management

A full examination of the upper limb is required. Leave obviously swollen or deformed areas until the end. Palpate the clavicle, humerus, forearm and gently move the joints (shoulder, wrist, and lastly elbow). Pulled elbows rarely result in joint swelling. If this is present an alternative diagnosis should be considered (e.g., supracondylar fracture).

If a pulled elbow is the only likely diagnosis, then it may be reasonable to proceed to a subluxated radial head reduction manoeuvre. However, when the history is not clear (e.g., unwitnessed mechanism involving siblings or a fall), then it is much safer to perform further diagnostic tests prior to manipulation. These include radiograph of the elbow to rule out fracture or elbow ultrasound to rule out joint effusion [4].


Reduction Technique

 This is done by supporting the elbow with one hand and using your other hand to move the patient’s arm through the recommended maneuvers. There are 2 different maneuvers to try, and they may be used alone or in combination [1-3,5].

  • Supinate the child’s forearm with your hand and flex the elbow

 

Figure 2: Demonstration of the supination/flexion maneuver [5]

  • Hyperpronate the child’s forearm

Figure 3: Demonstration of the hyperpronation maneuver [5]

Some research has indicated that the hyperpronation maneuver may be more effective and less painful for the patient [2,6], so it may be worth attempting this maneuver first.

If the maneuvers are successful, you may hear a click from the radial head as it moves back into place. The child may briefly cry as the subluxation is reduced. Movement recovery can take anywhere from a few minutes to several hours, but usually occurs within 30 minutes. The greater the delay from injury to presentation and subsequent reduction, the longer it will take for post reduction return to normal movement [2].

If a click is heard or felt during the manoeuvre it can usually be assumed that reduction has occurred. Ideally, it is recommended that the child remain under observation until normal movement returns. However, if delayed, it is reasonable to discharge the child with advice to return.

In any case where an x-ray or ultrasound has not been performed and the child does not rapidly start using their arm post manoeuvre, then imaging is required prior to any further manipulation.


Prognosis

Although a pulled elbow does not result in a permanent injury, it is important to inform the family that their child will be vulnerable to recurrent pulled elbows in the affected arm. Up to 27% of patients with a pulled elbow may experience a recurrence [7-8].


Case continued:

Based on the patient’s history and physical exam, she was diagnosed with a pulled elbow. Using the supination and flexion maneuver followed by the hyperpronation maneuver, an audible click was elicited from the patient’s elbow. Shortly thereafter, she began using the arm again as if no injury had occurred and was discharged home.


Key points:

 

  1. A pulled elbow is a common upper limb injury in young children presenting to the Emergency Department
  2. Careful assessment may preclude the need for diagnostic imaging however if in any doubt further investigation should be performed prior to manipulation. Many physicians will never forget the time they used a pulled elbow reduction technique in a child with an unexpected supracondylar fracture
  3. HYPERPRONATE and/or SUPINATE & FLEX!
  4. Recurrence is common

References

  1. Aylor, M., Anderson, J., Vanderford, P., Halsey, M., Lai, S., & Braner, D. A. (2014). Reduction of pulled elbow. New England Journal of Medicine, 371(21), e32.
  2. Wolfram, W., Boss, D., & Panetta, M. (2018, December 18). Nursemaid Elbow. Medscape. Retrieved September 6, 2022, from https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/803026-overview#a5
  3. Boston Children’s Hospital. (2021). Nursemaid’s elbow. Retrieved September 6, 2022, from https://www.childrenshospital.org/conditions/nursemaids-elbow
  4. Varga, M., Papp, S., Kassai, T., Bodzay, T., Gáti, N., & Pintér, S. (2021). Two- plane point of care ultrasonography helps in the differential diagnosis of pulled elbow. Injury, 52(1), S21-24.
  5. Kilgore, K., & Henry, K. (2021). Nursemaid’s elbow. Society for Academic Emergency Medicine – Clerkship Directors in Emergency Medicine. Retrieved September 6, 2022, from https://www.saem.org/about-saem/academies-interest-groups-affiliates2/cdem/for-students/online-education/peds-em-curriculum/nursemaid%27s-elbow
  6. Lewis, D., Argall, J., & Mackway-Jones, K. (2003). Reduction of pulled elbows. Emergency Medicine Journal, 20, 61-62.
  7. Schunk, J. F. (1990). Radial head subluxation: epidemiology and treatment of 87 episodes. Annals of emergency medicine, 19(9), 1019-1023.
  8. Teach, S. J., & Schutzman, S. A. (1996). Prospective study of recurrent radial head subluxation. Archives of pediatrics & adolescent medicine, 150(2), 164-166.
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EMSJ CPD Recommendations

 Dr Mackenzie Howatt MD FRCPC, Director of CPD

 

I’ve listed below a few external CPD activities for your perusal. I’m hoping to be able to update you monthly on upcoming activities both internal and external to our department to make sure everyone is aware of at least some of the myriad activities out there. I have no involvement/personal stake in any of the listed activities.

 

External CPD Activities – Updated for January 2023


Clinical:

  1. CAEP -AIME – registration open for AIME (March 1 or March 2). Requires registration on CAEP website. https://caep.ca/cpd-courses/. AIME advanced Jan 28 and April 20 (both full but can be put on waitlist). AIME awake April 19. Different rates for CAEP and non CAEP members
  2. CAEP National conference – May 28-31. Toronto. Requires registration
  3. EMU – Emergency Medicine Update – April 26-28 Toronto. https://emupdate.ca/. 3 day in person conference with updates to clinical medicine.
  4. ICEM (International Conference on Emergency Medicine) – June 13-16, 2023.https://icem2023.com/ Taking place in Amsterdam.
  5. Annual Update in EM – Feb 25-28th – Whistler, BC. Arranged by UofT DEM.https://www.cpd.utoronto.ca/whistler/.
  6. EM cases Summit – Feb 2-4, 2023. Virtual, based out of Toronto on the “EM cases” group.https://emcasessummit.com/
  7. SRPC Rural and Remote Conference. in Niagara , April 20-22 2023. https://srpc.ca/rr2023
  8. PEM Review Course – Banff, Alberta, Jan 26-Jan 28th. Can attend virtually or in person.https://emo.simplesignup.ca/en/11845/index.php?m=eventSummary
  9. https://imagesim.com/ – An online repository of pediatric images (xray, US, etc) and cases used for resident or faculty education. Different “packages” can be purchased and you have access for 2 years to the particular images/cases. Based out of SickKids in Toronto.
  10. CAEP – Geriatric EM – mix of video modules and then live virtual course on May 27th. Register https://caep.ca/cpd-courses-2/geri_em/.
  11. CAEP “National Grand Rounds” – Overcoming organizational Shame” by Dr’s Sara Gray, and Dr. Dawn Lim. Jan 25th at 1500 atlantic. https://caep.ca/cpd-courses-2/caep-national-grand-rounds/
  12. CAEP/BEEM Journal Club rounds – “Chest pain in the ED – High risk or not, what do I do?” Wednesday Jan 18 @ 1500 Atl. https://caep.ca/beem-caep-rural-journal-club/
  13. Dalhousie – 48th Annual Dalhousie Spring Refresher – Emergency Medicine – can be in person (Halifax) or virtual. 2 day event. April 21 and 22. Registration not yet open.https://medicine.dal.ca/departments/core-units/cpd/conferences.html

 


Administrative/Leadership/Faculty Development/Education:

  1. Dalhousie CPD – “What if I say the wrong thing? Integrating EDIA into teaching” Online session, need to register: https://medicine.dal.ca/departments/core-units/cpd/faculty-development.html. Jan 24 5:30-7:00
  2. Physician Leadership Institute (PLI) – Through Joule (affiliated with CMA). Have a number of online leadership courses in the new year including: “Leadership starts with self-awareness”, “leadership for medical women”, “building and leading teams” “leading change” and “leading sustainable health systems”. There are also some “on demand” courses available as well. I think you need to be a CMA member to access the PLI courses. https://joulecma.ca/learning/physician-leadership-institute?_gl=1*ktqf2z*_ga*MTcxNjY1Njc0Mi4xNjcwOTQ1MDIz*_ga_91NZ7HZZ51*MTY3MDk0NTAyMy4xLjEuMTY3MDk0NTA0OC4zNS4wLjA
  3. CAEP – Better Together: moving towards Gender Equity in Emergency Medicine. https://caep.ca/cpd-courses-2/women-in-em-gender-equity/. April 5, 18th, and 25th at 8pm Atlantic.Online course designed to give physicians foundational knowledge in how female and non-binary trainees and physicians experience discrimination throughout medical training and in practice.

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Bicuspid Aortic Valve – An important incidental PoCUS finding?

Bicuspid Aortic Valve – An important incidental PoCUS finding?

Medical Student Pearl

 

Khoi Thien Dao

MD Candidate – Class of 2023

Dalhousie Medicine New Brunswick

Reviewed by: Dr. David Lewis


Case:

A 58-year-old male presents to Emergency Department with sudden onset of chest pain that is radiating to the back. He was also having shortness of breath at the same time of chest pain. The patient later reveals that his past medical history only consists of “bicuspid valve”, and he takes no medication. On examination, he was uncomfortable, but no signs of acute distress. His respiratory and cardiac exam were unremarkable for reduced air sound, adventitious sound, heart murmur, or extra heart sound. ECG was normal and initial cardiac markers were within normal range. His chest x-ray is normal.

You are aware that with his medical presentation and a history of bicuspid aortic valve, you need to consider associated concerning diagnosis (aortic root aneurysm and aortic dissection) within the differential (myocardial infarct, congestive heart failure, pneumonia, etc.).


Bicuspid Aortic Valve

Bicuspid aortic valve is one of the most common types of congenital heart disease that affects approximately one percent of population. There is a strong heritable component to the disease. Bicuspid aortic valve occurs when two leaflets fused (commonly right and left coronary leaflets) and form a raphe, a fibrous ridge1. The fusion of the leaflets can be partial, or complete, with the presence or absence of a raphe1. Bicuspid aortic valve disease is associated with increasing risks for valve calcification, which lead to aortic stenosis or regurgitation secondary to premature degeneration1. This congenital heart defect is also a well-known risks factor for aortic dissection and aortic dilatation. Reports have estimated prevalence of aortic dilation in patients with bicuspid aortic valve ranging between 20 to 80 percent, and that the risks of aortic dilation increase with age2. Increases risk of aortic dilatation in bicuspid valve disease also leads to a significantly greater risk for aortic dissection2.3.

The majority of patients with bicuspid aortic valve are asymptomatic with relatively normal valve function and therefore can remain undiagnosed for many years. However, most patients with bicuspid aortic valve will develop complications and eventually require valve surgery within their lifetime. Early diagnosis, while asymptomatic, can enable close follow-up for complications and early intervention with better outcomes. However, asymptomatic individuals are rarely referred for echocardiography.

With increasing use of cardiac PoCUS by Emergency Physicians, there are two scenarios where increased awareness of the appearance of bicuspid aortic valve and its complications may be of benefit.

  1. Known bicuspid aortic valve patients presenting with possible associated complications
  2. Undiagnosed bicuspid aortic valve patients presenting with unrelated symptoms undergoing routine cardiac PoCUS

This clinical pearl provides a review of the clinical approach to bicuspid aortic valve and its associated complications and provides guide to enhancing clinical assessment with PoCUS.


Clinical Approach:

Although bicuspid aortic valve commonly presents as asymptomatic, a detailed focused cardiac history can assess for clinical signs and symptoms related to valve dysfunction and its associated disease, such as reduced exercise capacity, angina, syncope, or exertional dizziness1. Information about family history with relation to cardiac disease is essential for a clinician’s suspicion of heritable cardiovascular disease. Red flag symptoms that shouldn’t be missed such as chest pain, back pain, hypertensive crisis, etc. should be specifically identified. They are indicators for possible emergent pathologies that should not be missed (for example: acute MI, aortic dissection, ruptured aortic aneurysm, etc.)

Physical examination findings in patients with bicuspid aortic valve include, but not limited to, ejection sound or click at cardiac apex/base, murmurs that have features of crescendo-decrescendo or holosystolic. Clinical signs of congestive heart failure such as dyspnea, abnormal JVP elevation, and peripheral edema may also be present.


Core Cardiac PoCUS:

With cardiac PoCUS, it is important to obtain images from different planes and windows to increase the complexity of the exam and to be able to be confidently interpreting the exam. There are four standard cardiac view that can be obtained: parasternal short axis (PSSA), parasternal long axis (PSLA), subxiphoid (sub-X), and apical 4-chamber view (A4C). Each cardiac view has specific benefits.

Parasternal Long Axis

With the PSLA, the phased-array transducer is placed to the left sternum at 3rd or 4th intercostal with transducer orientation pointing toward patient’s right shoulder. Key structures that should be seen are Aortic Valve (AV), Mitral Valve (MV), Left Ventricle (LV), pericardium, Right Ventricle (RV), Left Ventricular Outflow Tract (LVOT), and portion of ascending and descending aorta8. It is primarily used to assess left ventricular size and function, aortic and mitral valves, left atrial size8. Furthermore, pericardial effusions and left ventricular systolic function can be assessed.

Parasternal Long Axis

 

Parasternal Short Axis

Using the same transducer position as the PSLA the transducer can be centered to the mitral valve and rotated 90 degrees clockwise to a point where the transducer marker points to patient’s left shoulder to obtain the PSSA. With this orientation, one can assess for global LV function and LV wall motion8. Furthermore, with five different imaging planes that can be utilized with this view, aortic valve can be visualized in specific clinical contexts.

Parasternal Short Axis

 

Apical 4-Chamber

The apical 4-chamber view is generated by placing the transducer at the apex, which is landmarked just inferolateral to left nipple in men and underneath inferolateral of left breast in women. This view helps the clinician to assess RV systolic function and size relative to the LV8.

Apical 4-Chamber

 

Subxiphoid

The subxiphoid view can be visualized by placing a transducer (phased-array or curvilinear) immediately below the xiphoid process with the transducer marker points to patient’s right. The movements of rocking, tilting, and rotation are required to generate an optimal 4-chamber subcostal view. A “7” sign, which consists of visualizing the border between liver and pericardium, the septum, and the RV and LV that looks like number 7. This view allows user to assess RV functions, pericardial effusion, and valve functions8. In emergency setting, it can be used for rapid assessments in cardiac arrest, cardiac tamponade, and global LV dysfunction8.

From –  the PoCUS Atlas

Subxiphoid labelled

 

7 Sign


PoCUS Views for Aortic Valve Assessment

In assessing the aortic valve, the PSSA and PSLA can be best used to obtain different information, depending on clinical indications. Both views can be used to assess blood flows to assess stenosis or regurgitation. However, the PSLA view includes the aorta where clinician can look for aortic valve prolapse or doming as signs of stenosis and its complications, like aortic dilatation. On the other hand, PSSA are beneficial when assessing the aortic valve anatomy.

Parasternal Long Axis

From PoCUS 101

Parasternal Short Axis

From – the PoCUS Atlas


PoCUS Appearance of Normal Aortic Valve (Tricuspid) vs Bicuspid Aortic Valve

With PSSA view, the normal aortic valve will have three uniformly leaflets that open and form a circular orifice during most of systole. During diastole, it will form a three point stars with slight thickening at central closing point. The normal aortic valve is commonly referred to as the Mercedes Benz sign.

Parasternal Short Axis – Normal Tricuspid AV – Mercedes Benz Sign and 3 cusp opening

Pitfall

However, the Mercedes Benz Sign sign can be misleading bicuspid valve disease when three commissure lines are misinterpreted due to the presence of a raphe. A raphe is a fibrous band formed when two leaflets are fused together. It is therefore important to visualize the aortic valve when closed and during opening, to ensure all 3 cusps are mobile. Visualization of The Mercedes Benz sign is not enough on its own to exclude Bicuspid Aortic Valve.

Apparent Mercedes sign when AV closed due to presence of raphe. Fish mouth appearance of the same valve when open confirming bicuspid aortic valve

Bicuspid Aortic Valve

Identification requires optimal valve visualization during opening (systole). Appearance will depend on the degree of cusp fusion. In general a ‘fish mouth’ appearance is typical for bicuspid aortic valve.

Parasternal Short Axis – Fish Mouth Opening – Fusion L & R Coronary Cusps – Bicuspid Aortic Valve

In the parasternal long axis view the aortic valve can form a dome shape during systole, and prolapse during diastole, rather than opening parallel to the aorta. This is called systolic doming. Another sign that can be seen in PSLA view is valve prolapse, when either right or non-coronary aortic valve cusps showed backward bowing towards the left ventricle beyond the attachment of the aortic valve leaflets to the annulus. This can be estimated by drawing a line joining the points of the attachment.

Systolic doming

 

Diastolic prolapse and systolic doming

 

 

 


PoCUS Appearance of the Complications of Bicuspid Valve Disease

In patients presenting with chest/back pain, shock or severe dyspnea who have either known or newly diagnosed bicuspid valve disease, PoCUS assessment for potential complications can be helpful in guiding subsequent management.

Complications of bicuspid aortic valve include aortic dilatation at root or ascending (above 3.8cm) and aortic dissection 5-9.

Dilated aortic root, from – sonomojo.com

Aortic root dilatation – Normal maximum = 40mm

 

Aortic root dilatation with dissection

Valve vegetations or signs of infective endocarditis are among the complications of severe bicuspid valve5-9

Aortic valve vegetations


General Management of Patients with Bicuspid Valve in the Emergency Department

Management of bicuspid aortic valve disease is dependent on the severity of the disease and associated findings.

For a patient with suspicious diagnosis of bicuspid valve disease, a further evaluation of echocardiography should be arranged, and patient should be monitored for progressive aortic valve dysfunction as well as risk of aortic aneurysm and dissection. Surgical intervention is indicated with evidence of severe aortic stenosis, regurgitation, aneurysm that is > 5.5cm, or dissection1.


How accurate is PoCUS for Aortic Valve assessment?

Bicuspid aortic valve disease is usually diagnosed with transthoracic echocardiography, when physical examination has revealed cardiac murmurs that prompt for further investigation. However, patients with bicuspid valve disease frequently remain asymptomatic for a prolonged periods. Michelena et al. (2014) suggested that auscultatory abnormalities account for 60 to 70% diagnostic echocardiograms for BAV in community10.

While there are no published studies on the utility of PoCUS for the diagnosis of bicuspid aortic valve, there are studies on the use of PoCUS as part of the general cardiac exam. Kimura (2017) published a review that reported early detection of cardiac pathology when PoCUS was used as part of the physical exam 9. Abe et al. (2013) found that PoCUS operated by expert sonographer to screen for aortic stenosis has a sensitivity of 84% and a specificity of 90% in 130 patients 11. In another study by Kobal et al. (2004), they found that PoCUS has a specificity of 93% and sensitivity of 82% in diagnosing mild regurgitation12.

There are also limitations of using PoCUS to assess for bicuspid aortic valve disease, or valve disease in general. Obtaining images from ultrasound and interpretation are highly dependent on user’s experiences to assess for the valve9. Furthermore, research is needed to investigate the use of PoCUS in lesser valvular pathology.

 

When a new diagnosis of bicuspid aortic valve is suspected, a formal echocardiogram should be arranged, and follow-up is recommended.


Summary 

  • Bicuspid aortic valve is often asymptomatic and undiagnosed until later in life
  • Patients with known bicuspid aortic valve disease are closely followed and may require surgical intervention in the event of complications
  • Diagnosis of bicuspid aortic valve requires careful visualization of valve closing and opening during diastole and systole
  • The increased use of PoCUS by Emergency Physicians as an adjunct to cardiac examination may result in increased diagnosis of bicuspid  aortic valve. These may be related to the presentation or incidental findings
  • In patients presenting to the Emergency Department with known or newly diagnosed bicuspid aortic valve disease, consider if a complication is related to their presentation
  • In patient with incidental finding of bicuspid aortic valve disease refer for cardiology follow up

 


References

  1. Braverman, A. C., & Cheng, A. (2013). The bicuspid aortic valve and associated aortic disease. Valvular heart disease. Philadelphia: Elsevier, 179-218.
  2. Verma, S., & Siu, S. C. (2014). Aortic dilatation in patients with bicuspid aortic valve. N Engl J Med370, 1920-1929.
  3. Della Corte, A., Bancone, C., Quarto, C., Dialetto, G., Covino, F. E., Scardone, M., … & Cotrufo, M. (2007). Predictors of ascending aortic dilatation with bicuspid aortic valve: a wide spectrum of disease expression. European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery31(3), 397-405.
  4. Tirrito, S. J., & Kerut, E. K. (2005). How not to miss a bicuspid aortic valve in the echocardiography laboratory. Echocardiography: A Journal of Cardiovascular Ultrasound and Allied Techniques22(1), 53-55.
  5. Baumgartner, H., Donal, E., Orwat, S., Schmermund, A., Rosenhek, R., & Maintz, D. (2015). Chapter 10: Aortic valve stenosis. The ESC textbook of cardiovascular imaging. European Society of Cardiology.
  6. Fowles, R. E., Martin, R. P., Abrams, J. M., Schapira, J. N., French, J. W., & Popp, R. L. (1979). Two-dimensional echocardiographic features of bicuspid aortic valve. Chest75(4), 434-440.
  7. Shapiro, L. M., Thwaites, B., Westgate, C., & Donaldson, R. (1985). Prevalence and clinical significance of aortic valve prolapse. Heart54(2), 179-183.
  8. Gebhardt, C., Hegazy, A.F., Arntfield, R. (2015). Chapter 16: Valves. Point-of-Care Ultrasound. Philadelphia: Elsevier, 119-125.
  9. Kimura, B. J. (2017). Point-of-care cardiac ultrasound techniques in the physical examination: better at the bedside. Heart103(13), 987-994.
  10. Michelena, H. I., Prakash, S. K., Della Corte, A., Bissell, M. M., Anavekar, N., Mathieu, P., … & Body, S. C. (2014). Bicuspid aortic valve: identifying knowledge gaps and rising to the challenge from the International Bicuspid Aortic Valve Consortium (BAVCon). Circulation129(25), 2691-2704.
  11. Abe, Y., Ito, M., Tanaka, C., Ito, K., Naruko, T., Itoh, A., … & Yoshikawa, J. (2013). A novel and simple method using pocket-sized echocardiography to screen for aortic stenosis. Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography26(6), 589-596.
  12. Kobal, S. L., Tolstrup, K., Luo, H., Neuman, Y., Miyamoto, T., Mirocha, J., … & Siegel, R. J. (2004). Usefulness of a hand-carried cardiac ultrasound device to detect clinically significant valvular regurgitation in hospitalized patients. The American journal of cardiology93(8), 1069-1072.
  13. Le Polain De Waroux, J. B., Pouleur, A. C., Goffinet, C., Vancraeynest, D., Van Dyck, M., Robert, A., … & Vanoverschelde, J. L. J. (2007). Functional anatomy of aortic regurgitation: accuracy, prediction of surgical repairability, and outcome implications of transesophageal echocardiography. Circulation116(11_supplement), I-264.
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Resuscitative Transesophageal Echo

Resuscitative TEE – the whats, the whys and the hows…. A brief review of the literature, examples of use and a proposed cardiac arrest protocol

Dr. David Lewis

Professor, Dalhousie Department of Emergency Medicine


Download SlidesPoCUS Rounds – TEE – Nov 2022



Further Reading

Introduction to Transesophageal Echo – Basic Technique

   http://pie.med.utoronto.ca/tee/

ACEP NOW – How to Perform Resuscitative Transesophageal Echocardiography in the Emergency Department

 

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Management of Supraventricular Tachycardia (SVT) in Pregnancy

 

Management of Supraventricular Tachycardia (SVT) in Pregnancy

Medical Student Clinical Pearl

 

Tyson Fitzherbert, DMNB Class of 2024

Reviewed by Dr. Luke Taylor and Dr. David Lewis

 


Case:

A 30-year-old pregnant (32 weeks) female presents to the emergency department with palpitations and chest discomfort. On ECG they are diagnosed with supraventricular tachycardia, a narrow complex arrythmia – how would you proceed?

 


Introduction:

Pregnant women have a higher incidence of cardiac arrhythmias. The exact mechanism of increased arrhythmia burden during pregnancy is unclear, but has been attributed to hemodynamic, hormonal, and autonomic changes related to pregnancy. A common arrhythmia in pregnancy is supraventricular tachycardia (SVT). SVT is a dysrhythmia originating at or above the atrioventricular (AV) node and is defined by a narrow complex (QRS < 120 milliseconds) at a rate > 100 beats per minute (bpm). The presentations of SVT in pregnancy are the same as the nonpregnant state and include symptoms of palpitations that may be associated with presyncope, syncope, dyspnea, and/or chest pain. Diagnosis is confirmed by electrocardiogram (ECG).

 


Figure 1: Rhythm strip demonstrating a regular, narrow-complex tachycardia, or supraventricular tachycardia (SVT).

In general, the approach to the treatment of arrhythmias in pregnancy is similar to that in the nonpregnant patient. However, due to the theoretical or known adverse effects of antiarrhythmic drugs on the fetus, antiarrhythmic drugs are often reserved for the treatment of arrhythmias associated with clinically significant symptoms or hemodynamic compromise. Below is a detailed description of the management of SVT in pregnancy.

 


Management:

Figure 2: Treatment algorithm for SVT in pregnancy.

 


General Considerations:

  • Non‐pharmacological treatment including vagal manoeuvres such as carotid massage and Valsalva manoeuvre are well tolerated and aid in management.
  • Intravenous adenosine can be used in all three trimesters, including labor.
  • Electrical cardioversion is an effective treatment method for hemodynamically unstable or drug-refractory patients, which has proven to be safe in all three trimesters, including labor. There are some examples of this leading to pre-term labor in the third trimester.
  • AV nodal blocking agents and anti-arrhythmic agents may be considered for cardioversion; see table below for effects in pregnancy and breast feeding.

 

 


Case Continued:

A modified Valsalva manoeuvre is performed with resolution to sinus rhythm after 2 attempts. The patient is discharged with OBGYN follow-up.

https://sjrhem.ca/modified-valsalva-maneuver-in-the-treatment-of-svt-revert-trial/

 


Further Reading


References:

  1. Patti L, Ashurst JV. Supraventricular Tachycardia. [Updated 2022 Aug 8]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2022 Jan-. Available from: https://www-ncbi-nlm-nih-gov.ezproxy.library.dal.ca/books/NBK441972/
  2. UpToDate – https://www.uptodate.com/contents/supraventricular-arrhythmias-during-pregnancy#H11407709
  3. Ibetoh CN, Stratulat E, Liu F, Wuni GY, Bahuva R, Shafiq MA, Gattas BS, Gordon DK. Supraventricular Tachycardia in Pregnancy: Gestational and Labor Differences in Treatment. Cureus. 2021 Oct 4;13(10):e18479. doi: 10.7759/cureus.18479. PMID: 34659918; PMCID: PMC8494174. https://www-ncbi-nlm-nih-gov.ezproxy.library.dal.ca/pmc/articles/PMC8494174/
  4. Ramlakhan KP, Kauling RM, Schenkelaars N, et al, Supraventricular arrhythmia in pregnancy, Heart 2022;108:1674-1681. https://heart.bmj.com/content/early/2022/01/26/heartjnl-2021-320451#T2
  5. Goyal A, Hill J, Singhal M. Pharmacological Cardioversion. [Updated 2022 Jul 25]. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2022 Jan-. Available from: https://www-ncbi-nlm-nih-gov.ezproxy.library.dal.ca/books/NBK470536/
  6. Vaibhav R. Vaidya, Nandini S. Mehra, Alan M. Sugrue, Samuel J. Asirvatham, Chapter 60 – Supraventricular tachycardia in pregnancy, Sex and Cardiac Electrophysiology. https://www-sciencedirect-com.ezproxy.library.dal.ca/science/article/pii/B9780128177280000607

 

 

 

 

 

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EMSJ CPD Recommendations – November 2022

Dr Mackenzie Howatt MD FRCPC, Director of CPD

External CPD Activities 

I’ve listed below a few external CPD activities for your perusal. I’m hoping to be able to update you monthly on upcoming activities both internal and external to our department to make sure everyone is aware of at least some of the myriad activities out there. I have no involvement/personal stake in any of the listed activities.

 

Clinical:

  1. CAEP -AIME – registration open for AIME Awake and Advanced in Jan 2023. AIME awake Jan 27th. AIME Advanced Jan 28th. Both in Halifax. Requires registration
  2. CAEP webinar – DOAC related bleeding management. Nov 30th 2 pm Atlantic. Requires online resgistration (free for CAEP members)
  3. CAEP National conference – May 28-31. Toronto. Requires registration
  4. EMU – Emergency Medicine Update – April 26-28 Toronto. https://emupdate.ca/. 3 day in person conference with updates to clinical medicine.
  5. ICEM (International Conference on Emergency Medicine) – June 13-16, 2023. https://icem2023.com/Taking place in Amsterdam.
  6. Annual Update in EM – Feb 25-28th – Whistler, BC. Arranged by UofT DEM.https://www.cpd.utoronto.ca/whistler/ .
  7. EM cases Summit – Feb 2-4, 2023. Virtual, based out of Toronto on the “EM cases” group. Tickets are available starting early November.https://emcasessummit.com/ . Not sure of the cost, and I suspect the videos are available after course for a fixed cost.

Administrative/Leadership/Faculty Development

  1. Dalhousie CPD – “Language Matters: Navigating Stigma and Respect Clinical Education and Patient Care”https://medicine.dal.ca/departments/core-units/cpd/faculty-development.html. Online webinar from 8-9 AM over Zoom. Free.

Education

  1. Dalhousie- Fundamentals of Teaching: Fundamentals of Clinical Teaching and Supervision – Nov 1 – Dec 13.  A hybrid course of offline readings, videos, quizzes, etc that ends with a 1hr live webinar on Dec 13. https://medicine.dal.ca/departments/core-units/cpd/faculty-development/programs/Fundamentals_Teaching.html. 100$ registration fee.
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